Waste Water and Sewage

Executive Summary
The ICS project provides the solution to the Waste, Water and the Sewage systems through the provision of remote and local control of the movement of the turbulence of the liquid and aqueous solutions. The ICS system incorporates the combination of different integrated systems that control pressure regulates the speed as well as controlling the gate valves in water catchment areas. The ICS system implements the SCADA technology to take the digital management and control of the wastewater and the sewage. The SCADA technology applies the sensor approach methodology whereby the sensor mechanism gets involved in managing and controlling the intake and the pumps used at the various points in the industrial system. The gadgets controlled include the water pumps the distributors and the purifying centers. The SCADA automates the process of the water supply to enhance proportional distribution of water in industries, factories, urban centers, rural areas, the domestic utilization and the agricultural operations like irrigation. The ICS-SCADA system gets applied in the Waste and Sewage system control and disposal. The SCADA systems monitor the discrete data and information concerning the entry of the waste material within the conduit pipes. The applications of the SCADA in the ICS include the pressure hydraulic pumps utilized in the boreholes gas and oil distributing industries.

ICS Industry Architecture Being Designed
The ICS system shall incorporate the utilization of the hardware and the software integration of materials and components. The structure and the design of the ICS-SCADA system shall include the user interface architectural design, the backend and the front end operation interface. The ICS-SCADA systems architecture incorporates the relational and the non-relational database design. The design of the ICS-SCADA control and management structure shall implement the three tires and the two tire client-server based systems to ensure multiple computer-based operations. The system hardware and software components include the dedicated Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and the Radio Telemetry Units for running and controlling the control algorithms for the flow control (Brodsky, & Radvanovsky, 2011). The architecture also incorporates the input and the output systems for the displaying of the graphics, charts and diagrams for the monitored and analyzed values. The video display monitors and the telnet oriented video conferencing system shall get embedded in different terminals to enhance the remote and local troubleshooting and diagnosing of the entire system. The ICS-SCADA system shall incorporate the electromagnetic field sensors for the detection of flaws and dangers imposed within the system to relay the alarms and notifications to end users. The system architecture shall incorporate the installation of the storage devices interlinked with the data and information repository backup systems. The storage system shall implement the VMware cloud computing system to facilitate the storage of data and information for the future decision making. The ICS-SCADA system architecture shall take into consideration the installation and embedding of the artificial intelligent systems to enhance big data analysis as well as data mining and data warehousing for the waste, water, and the sewage control.

1. Overview

The SCADA project shall implement the Redundant Fiber Optic and the Ethernet network. The system shall use the Node system of linking the World Wide Web interface. The proposed SCADA system within the Waste, Water and the Sewage system shall involve the replacement of the Unix SCADA systems with the improved redundant SCADA systems. The project team shall design a comprehensive system that incorporates the mesh network topology. The network topology shall link over 5000 data points using the SCADA System and connect the complete installation and integration of the control systems (Brodsky, & Radvanovsky, 2011).

2. Statement of Need
The government and the water treatment center shall provide the solution to the general public industries and the agricultural sectors through the installation of the water treatment points and plants in different stages. The current problem of impure water requires the application of the sewers and the pump stations in the water treatment and catchment areas. The solution on the waste dumping and flow require the installation of the waste and water treatment plant at various points of water flow. The sewage control and management problem require the implementation of the ICS-SCADA sludge treatment plant in the urban and the industrial areas (Pramod, et al…, 2013). The various treatment points require monitoring of flow turbulence to regulate the speed and pressure of the materials on the transit network.

3. Detailed Description
The ICS-SCADA system shall incorporate the operational interfaces that gather and conduct the entire system control at the various routes and the section of the interface. The operational strategies shall incorporate the implementation of the SCADA Human Machine Interface (HMI) (Dzung, et al…, 2005). The system shall get embedded to the network terminals and the links to facilitate easier reading and interpretation of data and information. The system shall apply the simplified user capabilities over the entire system that guarantee operational and implementation friendly.

ICS Network Architecture
The main physical and logical devices implemented in the ICS-SCADA system involve the processors, the controllers, and the RTU’s. The entire system shall incorporate the connection of the devices via the neutral fiber optic and the Ethernet network. The processing unit shall manage and control the input and the output materials within the SCADA systems. The controllers shall include the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) responsible for automation of observing and analyzing of data and information (IEEE Guide for the Commissioning of Electrical Systems in Hydroelectric Power Plants, 1998). PLC allows easy programming of different applications. The Physical Control Systems (PCS) controls the movement of materials by regulating the speed and pressure. The Remote Terminal Units (RTU’s) have the responsibility for facilitating synchronization between pumps and the sensor mechanisms. The RTU’s adjusts the data and information according to the analysis within the system.

1. Physical and Logical Designs
The relay of data and information shall get implemented through the user of radio frequency signals. The satellite technology shall get combined with the Ethernet and the optical fibers. However, the entire system shall highly apply the peer to peer communication with the establishment of sessions to ensure secure systems (Dzung, et al…, 2005). The system shall mitigate dangers concerned with the interception, hacking and intruder attacks.

2. Protocols
The ICS-SCADA devices utilize different types of protocols as listed below DNP3, Fieldbus, Modbus, and Ethernet (Johnson, & 2010 International Conference on Internet Technology and Secured Transactions2010).

3. Devices

Devices
Open ports

Services
function
IDS and IPS
8080 with Ethernet and serial bus

Controls the input and output of data and information. enhance the encryption and decryption of data and information

Enable user to add use the authentication and verification protocols

PLC

8080, RS 232/422/485 with application of the SMTP, the TCP/ IP and physical connection of the serial bus and RJ – 45

The PLC is responsible for controlling and managing the input and the output ports. The device has responsibility for enhancing crossed cryptography schemes.

Enable the administrator to control the local server, the Ethernet server, the system server and the SCADA control server

HMI

502, 80 and utilizes the OPC, TCP/IP and the Modbus. The physical connection implemented includes the use of the Ethernet, the fiber optic cables with the use of the RJ -45

The HMI provides the friendly user interface.

Allow enabled dial up modem interfacing on local server
RTU

Open port include RS 23 and uses the Modbus, DNP3 and the Ethernet as well as the universal serial bus and the field bus

Provides the control of the Ethernet networks and the user fiber optic cable network

Allow the administrator to control the server and the data base systems.

Table 1: Devices
ICS Security Architecture
The ICS-SCADA system utilizes the software and the hardware firewall to secure the network. The SCADA systems also implement the Intruder Prevention System IPS and the Intruder Detection System (IDS) for securing the system from attack by the intruders and the hackers (Brodsky, & Radvanovsky, 2011). Other security devices include the virtual private networks (VPN) and the demilitarized zone (DMZ).

Understand Legal and Ethical Issues of Assisted Suicide

1. Discuss the legal rules and regulations on assisted suicide: one state legalizes the assisted suicide, and the other state does not.

In the United States, Oregon and Washington have legalized physician-assisted suicide. This law established by states provides citizens in the state with a right to assisted suicide commonly known as ‘death with dignity.’ In these states, physicians are empowered to aid patients to end their life and have been provided with a legal excuse to a charge of assisted suicide. The law in these states gives specific conditions when and under what circumstances a patient can be allowed to get assistance to end their life. Some of the requirements include that the patient is expected to die within a specified period and that the procedure must follow certain consent guidelines.

In states where there is no law legalizing physician-assisted suicide, an individual or a physician is guilty of promoting suicide attempt when they intentional leads to or assists another person attempt suicide.

2. Discuss the legal issues on assisted suicide (e.g., 2nd-degree murder).

The legal issues arising from physician-assisted suicide is that doctors can be charged with second-degree murder as they would be killing or aiding in the death of a patient intentionally. The legal perspective of homicide is described by the act of bringing about their death or assisting in ending their life, which is the act of assisted suicide. In care facilities, a legal issue arises when a doctor whose responsibility is to do good, aids in the death of a patient who requests assistance to commit suicide. The doctor may be charged and found guilty of assisting another person to commit suicide.

3. Discuss the ethical issues of assisted suicide (e.g., right to die).

Various ethical issues arising from traditions of nursing and medicine have led to opposition of assisted suicide by nursing and medical organizations. The patient’s in care facilities have a right to know their prognosis to make decisions concerning the implementation of life-prolonging treatment. Although patients have a right to make a decision about what they want, the ethical issue that arises is whether they are mentally competent and can make properly informed end of life decisions about their condition. Also, an ethical issue that arises from a patient who has a right to die and seeking to end their life since they are suffering is whether the suffering should be viewed according to the patient’s view or considered in other people’s perspective. An ethical issue on assisted suicide on an individual who has a right to die is whether the approach used is widely acceptable.

4. Shall the person (i.e., a family member) be charged a crime (e.g., murder), who has provided any kind of assistance to another person’s suicide?

A family member who provides any kind of assistance to another individual so as to assist end their life is guilty and may be charged with a crime of manslaughter. The crime is that the person purposely aids another commit suicide regardless of whether the patient was willing or made own decision to end their life. The kind of assistance may include giving advice on how to end life, giving a book that provides guidelines on suicide or even providing pills or medicine or other physical means that causes death.

5. Your feedback and solutions to the issues of assisted suicide, legal and ethical

The subject of assisted suicide whether by a family member or an organization or a physician raises sharp contrasting opinions. Individuals commit or have thoughts of committing suicide for various reasons that range from ending the suffering caused by terminal illnesses or other problems. Governments and states should formulate and enforce laws that prohibit assisted suicide without proper guidelines or advice. The individuals seeking advice on assisted suicide or those who want to commit suicide should have adequate knowledge of the outcome of their actions. Federal and state government should also increase assistance to patients who are suffering or have pain due to some illness.

Homework questions for reading

QUESTIONS FOR READING
What is Walker’s subject?

Walker’s subject is about the plight of the inner-city residents, especially the issue of capital punishment.

What is Big Pun’s attitude toward government?

Big Pun depicts the government as irresponsible and negligent of its responsibilities of serving the people. He feels angry about the government because of the way he thinks it oppresses the inner-city residents.

How are inner-city minorities depicted?
The inner-city minorities are depicted as the people who are suffering from the actions of the tyrannical government, the people who are denied the opportunities, and the people who are vulnerable to the demise of their lives because of the evils the government is doing against them.

What does Big Pun want his listeners to do?
Big Pun wants the listeners to understand the government better by shedding light on how it is oppressing its citizens.

QUESTIONS FOR REASONING AND ANALYSIS
What is Walker’s purpose in writing? What is her claim?

The purpose of writing this analysis is to publicize the sufferings of the inner-city minorities and also to raise the alarm concerning these sufferings being experienced by the inner-city dwellers. She claims that even today, capital punishment represents the utmost degree to which the judicial law is being exercised.

What strategies does she analyze?
She analyzes various stylistic techniques used by the Pun such as delivery and rhyme scheme to air his resentment.

How does the death penalty serve as an extended metaphor?
The death penalty serves as an extended metaphor because its adds insult to injury; people are already suffering from bad governance, and the death penalty threatens their existence.

QUESTIONS FOR REFLECTION AND DEBATE
Evaluate Walker’s analysis: Is it specific? Is it clear? Does it connect elements of the rap song to the song’s theme?

Walker’s analysis tends to be specific because he focuses on specific ideas and verses in the song that correlates with each other. She picks specific words or sentences that speak of similar ideas thereby cementing the point that she is trying to bring across. The analyst is clear because she presents her points in a manner that is easy to understand what is she is talking about. Walker tries to connect different elements of the rap song to the author’s theme very well. For instance, she analyzes the delivery and the rhyme schemes that connect effectively to the theme of the song which is capital punishment.

Do you like rap? If so, why? If not, why not?

I do not fancy rap songs because of its negative impacts to the community, especially the direct impacts on the youth. The scariest thing about rap songs is that they mentally seem to be contagious and when that combines with the support for violence, people get to murder others for inconsequential slights. Someone feels that he is superior and wants even to shoot anybody who says something negative about him. Rap songs also objectify women in that, instead of making them work partners, the women are used as things to do stuff to. That reinforces the sexual double standard thereby advocating violence against females. the songs always show someone bragging about having much money, and they cannot even help children go to school or even use it to help the needy.

Has rap made a contribution to modern music? If yes, how? If no, why not?

Rap songs have greatly contributed to modern music because it does not entail much and many young people are influenced by the same. You only create a few lines or even sing without any formula as much as you sway to the rhythm. Many songs that are coming up nowadays are rap songs. Therefore rap music is a great influence on modern music.